Dedicated to the Memory of Combs &c. founder Carole Hammett (1946-2009)
This Combs &c. Web Site is Generously Hosted by Click Here to Join USGenNet
We Support Free Nonprofit Genealogy and History on the Internet

Interim Research Report
Stephen & Minerva H. TITSWORTH Sullivan
of KY; Tipton Co, TN; Lawrence & Madison Cos, AR; Franklin & Fannin Cos, TX

Prepared by: Carole Hammett, Verdean Werder and Debra Snyder.
Please Email Additions and/or Corrections to The Combs &c. Webmaster.
Last Updated 10/97

Stephen SULLIVAN, b 1800-1810, TN, d 1856-1870, probably AR or TX; married (1) Unknown; Known Issue: Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Sullivan; married (2) between 1832 and 1844, probably in either Tipton Co, TN or Lawrence Co AR, Minerva H. "Minnie" TITSWORTH, b 1812/1813, KY; d aft 1880, probably in Fannin or Franklin Co, TX. Known Issue: Sarah, (Christopher?) Greenup, Mary, William, (Stephen?) Griffith, Thomas McGuire SULLIVAN.

Background: Thomas McGuire SULLIVAN (ca1856-1898) m Lydia Ann JOHNSON (1857-1956), great-grandmother of Verdean Werder and great-great grandmother of Carole Hammett & Debra Snyder. Lydia Ann "Granny" JOHNSON Sullivan was born 16-19 Aug 1857 in Madison County, Arkansas, the daughter of Richmond & Ruth Jane BURCHETT Johnson and granddaughter of Martin & Lydia HAWK Johnson, Jr. In 1946 in Banning, Riverside Co, CA, Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan, told Verdean Werder:

"…My husband was Thomas McGuire [or Maguire?] SULLIVAN. We met in Madison County, Arkansas, when he rode by one day when my sister and I were out collecting walnuts. We were married in 1878. His father was Stephen SULLIVAN and his mother was Minerva TITSWORTH…After our marriage, we moved to Mt. Vernon [Franklin County], Texas… My husband died there in 1898."

In the 1970s, in Banning, Riverside County, California, D. Snyder, great-great granddaughter of Thomas McGuire and Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan, visited numerous times with Ruth Jane SULLIVAN Sullivan, born in 1896 in Mt. Vernon, Franklin County, Texas, the youngest child of Thomas & Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan, and only two years of age at his death. Granny had lived with Ruth Jane for many years prior to her death. Ruth Jane had married her cousin, Stewart SULLIVAN, son of Griffin SULLIVAN, brother of Thomas McGuire. Ruth Jane spoke affectionately of "dances in Honey Grove [Fannin County, Texas] when I was young."

In June 1996, at a SULLIVAN family reunion in Yucaipa, Riverside County, California, Jay SULLIVAN, born in the 1920s, son of Stewart and Ruth SULLIVAN Sullivan, told the preparers of this report:

"My father was Stewart SULLIVAN. His father was Griff. I never knew his full name. My mother was Ruth Jane SULLIVAN. She was the daughter of Thomas SULLIVAN and Granny (Lydia Ann JOHNSON). Griff and Thomas were brothers."

Research of the SULLIVAN & TITSWORTH Families has been minimal. The death locations, for example, of both Stephen SULLIVAN and Minerva H. TITSWORTH remain unknown. What is known is as follows:

Not long after Thomas McGuire SULLIVAN'S death in 1898, his widow, Lydia Ann JOHNSON, and their children returned to Madison County, Arkansas, appearing on the 1900 census with their son, Noah Richmond SULLIVAN, born 22 Jan 1884 in Madison County, Arkansas, listed in both Lydia JOHNSON Sullivan's household with his mother and the girls, and also as a laborer in the household of a local farmer:

1900 Madison Co, AR Census, War Eagle Twp [included city of Huntsville]
HH# 173
Lydia JOHNSON, head, female, age 42 [as of June 1, 1900], born Aug 1857, widowed [N.B.: does not state no. of years widowed] 6 children born, 5 living, born in AR, father born in AR, mother born in VA. All children are listed as born in AR with father born in TX and mother in AR:
Katie C., dau, female, 21, born Feb 1879, single
Pearl B., dau, female, 18, Aug 1881, single
Ritchmond [sic], son, m, 16, born Jan 1884, single
Myrtle E., dau, female, 13, born Mar 1887, single
Ruth J., dau, female, 4, born Jun 1896, single

Noah Richmond SULLIVAN was apparently living at least part-time on the farm where he worked because he also appears in the 1900 census record of Madison Co, AR:

1900 Prairie Twp, HH #202 [partial record]:
William H. STARNS, head, male, 56, born Jan 1854, married, 32 years, born AR, both parents born in TN;
Richmond SULLIVAN, laborer, male, 16, born Jan 1884, single, born in AR, father born in TX, mother in AR
Samuel PHILLIPS, laborer, m, 15, Feb 1885, single.

Lydia and her children did not remain long in Madison County, Arkansas, however, since by 1904, Noah Richmond JOHNSON had married Exzelia Zora POOL, born 21 Mary 1883 in Maryville, Blount Co, Tennessee, and their eldest child, son Arlie Isaac SULLIVAN, was born that same year in Honey Grove, Fannin County, Texas.

By 1906, Noah and Exzelia Zora POOL were in Durant, Bryan County, Oklahoma, where their second son, Arttie William SULLIVAN, was born, in what was then Choctaw Indian Territory. Little trace remained of the presence of the Stephen and Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan family in Richland Creek Twp, Madison County, Arkansas, and none of Stephen SULLIVAN himself.

The earliest documented record located thus far for this family is the 1870 Madison County, Arkansas, Census [Note: Bracketed entries below are the researcher's and not part of the record]:

Richland Twp, p 425, HH #04:
Manny SULLIVAN 57 f KY [Minny: Minerva Titsworth]
Frank 38 m TN [Benjamin Franklin]
Sarah 26 f AR
Grunlop (?) 24 m AR [Greenup? Christopher Greenup?]
Martha 21 f AR
Bill 19 m TX [William?]
Thomas 13 m TX [Thomas Maguire]
Griffia (?) 16 m TX [Griffith? Stephen Griffith?]

"Griffia" was apparently Griff, father of Stewart SULLIVAN, whose full name may have been Stephen Griffith SULLIVAN (See below). Based on the above record, Stephen and/or Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan should have appeared on 1850 and 1860 US Census records in either Arkansas or Texas, but they have not yet been located on either. Also on the 1870 Madison Co, Arkansas Census, Richland Twp, was:

HH #538:
William P. TITSWORTH (chairmaker) 36 m KY
Sarah A. 31 f GA
Christopher 9 m TX
William G. 6 m TX
Charles K. 4 m TX

For reasons outlined below, we believe it possible that the above William P. TITSWORTH (s/o John & Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth) may have been brother to Minerva H. TITSWORTH. However, as uncommon as the TITSWORTH name may have been in some areas of the nation, this did not hold true for Madison County, Arkansas where pioneers John & Charity FINE Titsworth) were in the county by the late 1820s or early 1830s). Nevertheless, William Peyton TITSWORTH was in Northwest Arkansas as early as 1850, and in 1870, he and Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan were in the same township. No search has been made yet for William Peyton TITSWORTH'S 1860 Census record, but it appears he may have been in Texas at that time based on birth location of Christopher, age 9, in 1870. In 1850, however, he was just down the road from Madison County:

1850 Washington Co, AR Census, Page 755:
West Fork Twp, HH#089
William P. TITSWORTH 27 m KY
Sarah 29 f GA
Sarah 3 f AR
Elizabeth BLACKWELL 50 f VA
(Transcribed by C. Hammett, 1996)

On 24 Jun 1878, Minerva (Titsworth) SULLIVAN filed a homestead claim at the land office in Harrison, Boone County, Arkansas for 40 acres in Madison County, Arkansas, located in Township 16, Range 27, Section 15, SWSE. This land was in Richland Township not far from that of the family of her daughter-in-law, Lydia JOHNSON. Near neighbors included the HAWK, EVANS, LEDBETTER, EUBANKS and POWELL families. George W. HAWK, Sr., b ca 1800, in TN, was the brother of Lydia JOHNSON Sullivan's grandmother, Lydia HAWK Johnson, after whom Lydia was probably named.

In 1880, Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan and some of her children were still residing in Madison County, Arkansas according to U. S. Census records:

1880 Madison County, Arkansas, Sup. Dist, 2, Enumeration Dist. 105, Richland Twp, 29th June 1880 by A. Gallaher, p. 24:
HH #209
NEAL, Monroe w m 23 m Farmer AR -- --
SULLIVAN, Thomas w m 23 m Farmer TX TN KY
Sullivan, Lydia Ann w f 22 m wife Keeps House AR AR VA
Sullivan, Kate Cordelia w f 1 dau AR -- AR
Note: The above Monroe NEAL was the husband of Mary Jane JOHNSON, sister of Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan. It is not known why Mary Jane does not also appear in the above h.h.

1880 Madison County, Arkansas, Sup. Dist, 2, Enumeration Dist. 105, Richland Twp, 29th June 1880 by A. Gallaher, p. 24:
HH #252
SULLIVAN, Manervia w f 68 widow mother, Keeps House, cannot write, TN TN TN
Sullivan, Benjamin F. w m 49 single stepson, Farmer, cannot write, AR TN TN
Sullivan, Martha J. w f 29 single daughter, Keeps House AR TN TN
Sullivan, Stephen G[riff?] w m 24 single Farmer, TX TN TN
Sullivan, Lemuel O. w m 4 grandson AR AR AR
HARPER, William J. w m 8 grandson AR AR AR

Although Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan is listed above as having been born in Tennessee, the 1880 census record of her son, Thomas, indicates her birthplace was Kentucky, as does her own 1870 census record. A Kentucky birth has been accepted tentatively, particularly given the additional information that follows in regard to Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan's probable ancestry. It appears that the Frank SULLIVAN who was listed in the 1870 Census is the above Benjamin F[ranklin?] SULLIVAN, now listed as a step-son, presumably issue of an earlier marriage of Stephen SULLIVAN. Benjamin F.'s stated birthplace on the 1880 census record also conflicts with the 1870 since he was listed as having a Tennessee birth location, not Arkansas, in the earlier 1870 record. Given the 1870 census record, and the 1880 census record for son, Thomas, we have tentatively accepted Kentucky as Minerva's birthplace, and Tennessee as Benjamin's birthplace (See also the 1830 Census Record below). We have not yet located 1880 census records for the Greenup [Grunlop], Bill [William?] and Sarah SULLIVAN, who appeared in the 1870 household. It is probable that the above Lemuel O. SULLIVAN, grandson, was a son of either Bill [William?] or Greenup SULLIVAN, or even Sarah, and it is also possible that one or all were deceased by 1880. William J. HARPER may have been the son of Sarah, and another possibility may be that Bill, Greenup and Sarah SULLIVAN (Harper?) had already moved to Texas, leaving younger children behind with their mother. Much additional census research is required as only a surface search has been made thus far.

Little is known of Stephen SULLIVAN other than his status as husband to Minerva TITSWORTH, as father of Minerva's children and of Benjamin F. "Frank" SULLIVAN. Nothing is known of Stephen SULLIVAN'S earlier marriage, and no marriage record has been located yet for him and Minerva. Also, other older children may have already left the household by 1870. Nb: It is possible that a Civil War Confederate Pension record (Texas) has been located for Benjamin Franklin SULLIVAN; however, information to date is insufficient to include.

It does not appear that Stephen and Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan's ancestry has been actively researched previously, and no death certificates have been located for Stephen, Minerva or Thomas SULLIVAN. It is probable that a certificate does not exist for Thomas Maguire SULLIVAN due to (1) his death having taken place in Franklin County, Texas, whose courthouse burned; and (2) the fact that Texas did not require death certificates until 1921. It is not known when Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan died, but she does not have a registered death certificate in TX under the surname SULLIVAN (Oklahoma and Arkansas records also need to be checked). Likewise, the 1900 U. S. census requires a more thorough search. Also, no in-depth research has yet been accomplished for any of the siblings or children of Thomas and Griff SULLIVAN, and it is possible that Sarah SULLIVAN may have been a child of an earlier marriage, too.

Our tentative birth year for Stephen SULLIVAN is 1800-1810 based on the 1830 and 1840 U.S. Census Records below; the basis for his marriage to Minerva TITSWORTH, his death year range and birth location are the 1870 and 1880 census records above; and the statement of his daughter-in-law Lydia Ann JOHNSON. His marriage to Minerva probably took place between 1832 and 1844, 1832 being the estimated year of birth for Stephen's son Benjamin Franklin and 1844 being the year Stephen fathered Sarah (Assuming that Sarah was not a daughter by an earlier marriage. Given Minerva's age and the proximity of the various TITSWORTH and SULLIVAN households in 1830 and 1840, it seems more likely, however, that Sarah was a natural daughter of Stephen and Minerva). No research has yet been done on the marriages of the siblings of Thomas Maguire and Griff SULLIVAN. In 1830, the Tipton Co, Tennessee U. S. Census listed the following:

Page 288
Line 02 SULLIVAN, Stephen 10011-00101
Page 289
Line 09 TETSWORTH?, Christpher [sic] G. 0001-0001
Line 10 SAUNDERS, Isaac 0221001-10001
(1830 TN Census, Sistler, Nashville, TN)

Note that we have not yet documented that the above record is that of the Stephen SULLIVAN who married Minerva TITSWORTH, but the above TETSWORTH is accepted by his descendants (their documentation unknown) to be Christopher Greenup TITSWORTH, son of John and Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth.

Since Stephen's son, Benjamin F[ranklin] "Frank" SULLIVAN, was born ca 1832 in Tennessee, it appears probable that the male, age 15-19 and the female, age 10-14, in the above household were not Stephen's children, but they have not been identified. It also appears that at least one male, the male who is listed above as age 0-4 yrs (born 1826-1830), may have been an older sibling to Benjamin F. Also Note: The record of Isaac SAUNDERS has been included above in the event we discover a relationship between Isaac SAUNDERS of Tipton Co, Tennessee and the SANDERS/SAUNDERS family of Washington and Madison Counties, Arkansas.

In 1840, it is possible that we have another SULLIVAN-TITSWORTH connection, but without having viewed a copy of the actual census record, it is thus far an undocumented sighting with insufficient basis:

Lawrence County, Arkansas, 1840, Strawberry Twp:
Page 10 Line 07 Titsworth, C. G. 11001-10001-0
Page 11 Line 25 Sullivan, L. M. 211001-00001-0
Page 11 Line 26 Titsworth, John 00010001-00100001-0

A true copy of the original of the above census record should definitely be viewed as the old-style letters, 'S' and 'L' were often confused with each other, and this record may have actually read S. M. SULLIVAN. According to researchers of the Christopher Greenup TITSWORTH and John and Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth families, the above records are their ancestors. We do not know yet if they have identified the younger male and female in John TITSWORTH's household. However, based on the other census records, the L. M. SULLIVAN record may be:

Male 30-40 = Stephen [M.?] SULLIVAN, b 1800-1810
Female 20-30 = Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan, b ca 1813
Male 10-15 = Unknown SULLIVAN#1, born [Same who appeared in 1830 Tipton Co, TN census?]
Male 0-4 = Unknown SULLIVAN#2, born 1836-1840
Male 5-9 = Benjamin Franklin SULLIVAN, b 1832

The 1830 & 1840 census records, together with the 1870 and 1880 Census records, and the statements of Jay SULLIVAN, Ruth SULLIVAN Sullivan, Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan and Lydia Ann's father, Richmond JOHNSON, in his biographical statement in Goodspeeds' History of Northwest Arkansas, creates a probable framework for this family of:

  1. Stephen SULLIVAN, born 1800-1810, Tennessee, married first, before 1830, possibly in Tipton County, Tennessee, to _____, also born in Tennessee, died about 1832-1844. Known Issue:
  2. Benjamin Franklin "Frank" SULLIVAN, born 1831-2, Tennessee [and possibly 2 unidentified elder male siblings].

    Stephen SULLIVAN married second, between 1832 and 1844, possibly in Arkansas, to Minerva H. (aka "Manny" "Manervia") TITSWORTH, born 1811-1812, probably in Kentucky, died after 1880, possibly in Texas. Known & Probable Issue:

  3. Sarah SULLIVAN, born about 1844 in (Lawrence County?) Arkansas, died after 1870, possibly married a HARPER, possibly mother to William J. HARPER, born ca 1872, in (Madison County?), Arkansas.
  4. Greenup SULLIVAN, born about 1846 in Arkansas, died after 1870. Sullivan, Lemuel O., w, m, 4, grandson, AR, AR, AR
  5. Martha J. SULLIVAN, born 1849-1851, Arkansas, died after 1880.
  6. Bill [William?] SULLIVAN, born about 1851, Texas, died after 1880.
  7. Stephen G[riffith?]. "Griff" SULLIVAN, born about 1854-56, Texas, died after 1880; married ?; father of Steward SULLIVAN who m Ruth Jane SULLIVAN
  8. Thomas Maguire SULLIVAN, born 19 Aug, 1856, Texas, died 1898 in Mt. Vernon, Franklin County, Texas, married in Madison County, Arkansas in 1878, Lydia Ann JOHNSON Sullivan, born 16-19 Aug 1857, in Madison County, Arkansas, died 4 Jul 1955, Banning, Riverside County, California.

Note: The birth, marriage and death locations of the various SULLIVANs and TITSWORTHs make it obvious that these were always on the move. Given the above birth years, it is easily possible that they were missed in the 1850 census and, unfortunately, also the 1860, although both still need to be checked more thoroughly.

The proximity above of one or more SULLIVAN families to one or more TITSWORTH families is not sufficient, of course, to claim John and Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth as the parents of Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan, particularly when one considers that the first documented record of her and her children is in Richland Township of Madison County, Arkansas. Lydia JOHNSON's family first settled on Richland Creek not far from the present-day town of Wesley, whose original name was TITSWORTH, named for another John TITSWORTH who, according to descendant researchers, was born ca 1791 in Logan County, Kentucky, and was the first Postmaster of TITSWORTH.

Although no intermarriages have been located between the JOHNSON and the early TITSWORTH families of Richland Creek, their association was obviously long-standing:

"Primitive Baptist… Richland Church was organized at the residence of John (and Charity FINE) Titsworth about 1833, and continued to meet there about ten years. Among the first members were John TITSWORTH and wife, Martin JOHNSON and wife [Lydia HAWK], Jacob GRAY and wife, Elijah DRAKE and wife [Lucinda HAWK]…preachers, among them… David GAGE… Job HOB Thomas WILLIS, [John?] Clark JOHNSON, Thomas DOTSON, F[elix] G. EUBANKS…A log church house was built about 1843, and the present place of worship in 1855." (Goodspeeds' History of NW AR)

Also of interest, but not yet studied, are the following miscellaneous records:

1870 U. S. Census Index: SULLIVAN, GRIFFIN, Illinois Twp, Pope Co AR; Page 394
1880 U. S. Census Index: SULLIVAN, Thomas M.; E. D., Hopkins Co, TX, Page 205

Given that we believe Minerva TITSWORTH may have been descended from John and Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth who married in Livingston County, Kentucky, we also found the following record of particular interest:

List of Taxable property within the District of Jacob Doom, Commissioner in the County of Christian for the year 1799, which includes the (now) County of Livingston. [Note by ed.: The County of Livingston was formed from Christian in 1798, but evidently not organized until after the return made in 1799.]

Stephen Sullivant [sic], 0 blacks, 5 horse, 200 acres.
Isaac Tetsworth [sic], 3 blacks, 1 horse, 0 acres
Benjamin Tetsworth, 0 blacks, 2 horses, 200 acres
Abram Tetsworth, 0, blacks, 0 horses, 200 acres
James Thompson, 0 blacks, 0 horses, 200 acres
John Thompson, 0 blacks, 1 horse, 0 acres
Joseph Thompson, 0 blacks, 4 horses, 200 acres
Robert Thompson, 0, blacks, 0 horses, 0 acres land

Although the above would appear not to be our Stephen SULLIVAN, the close proximity of an older Stephen SULLIVAN to the above TITSWORTHS is telling and certainly an avenue for future exploration once we have documented the early years of Stephen and Minerva TITSWORTH Sullivan themselves.

Additional reasons for our belief that Minerva H. TITSWORTH may have been of the John & Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth family include additional occasions of close proximity, plus naming patterns. The following records were excerpted from earlier research of that family (sources unknown) and primarily emphasizes migrations and family naming patterns

Reminder! This is an Interim Report, it is very much undocumented, and is the repository of a considerable amount of speculation. We ask that you refrain from distributing it on any basis other than as a work-in-progress. (See copyright and distribution information below)


Note: The following section is not documented; primary source: LDS submissions. However, based on a number of records collected to date (most listed above), plus the following, we believe it possible (undocumented) that the family of Minerva H. TITSWORTH may have been the daughter of John & Sarah THOMPSON Titsworth:

John TITSWORTH, born 1787, Pennsylvania, died 30 Jul 1846, Lawrence County, Arkansas, married April 28, 1807 in Livingston Co, Kentucky, Sarah THOMPSON, born 1770-1776, died 1840-1846, Lawrence County, Arkansas. Known Issue:

(1) Christopher Greenup TITSWORTH, born 1811 in Lawrence County, Kentucky, died ca 1867, in Hunt, Fannin County, Texas; married (1) in 1828 in Trigg County, Kentucky to Louisa W _____, aka Mary Louisa PAYTON born abt 1812 in Perry County, Kentucky, died before 1860 in Cass County, Texas; married (2) 22 Aug 1858 in Cass County, Texas, Mary H. (Davidson) DANIEL, born abt 1832 in Tennessee. Known Issue of Christopher Greenup and Mary Louisa PAYTON Titsworth included: Levi Nicholas (born 4 Oct 1830, TN; died 8 Jan 1893, Fannin Co, TX, named a son GRIFFITH), Thomas Payton, John H, Sarah, Lemuel Beasley, Narcisus Minerva, Elizabeth (born 1850 Titus Co, TX, parent county of Franklin), William Greenup and Minerva.

(2) Elizabeth TITSWORTH, born 22 Dec 1822, Lawrence County, Kentucky [Note: Elizabeth is apparently a recent addition to genealogy of this family. No further information is available at this time.]

(3) William Payton TITSWORTH, born Dec 1823, Lawrence County, Kentucky, died aft 1870, married 10 Jun 1847 in Arkansas, Lawrence County, Arkansas, to Sarah BLACKWELL, born 1823 in Georgia. Known issue of William Payton and Sarah BLACKWELL Titsworth included: Sarah, born 1848, Washington Co, Arkansas; Christopher Columbus, b 1854, TX; William Green, born in 1854, TX; Carroll K., Newton, b 1859, AR: Robert Blackwell; Lilly B, born 1871, AR.

Two other descendants that may offer "clues" are:

1. Columbus Granville TITSWORTH, born on 14 Nov 1858 in Fannin Co, Texas. He died on 18 Mar 1921; married Roanna NEAL, born on 26 Aug 1865.

Question: Could Roanna NEAL have been kin to Monroe NEAL, Lydia JOHNSON Sullivan's brother-in-law, Monroe NEAL? Among his children was:

2. Florence Leola TITSWORTH, born 7 Mar 1886 in Blanco, Blanco Co, Texas; died in Durant, Bryan Co, Oklahoma; buried in Colbert, Bryan Co, Oklahoma. She was married to Carlton P GAGE on 15 Jun 1901. Carlton P GAGE was born in 1882. He died on 4 Dec 1952.

Question: Was Carlton GAGE kin to the JOHNSON/GAGE cousins of Madison Co, Arkansas?

To be continued…

Join Combs &c. in Support of USGenNet
— an IRS-approved nonprofit web-hosting service —

Combs &c. Research FamiliesCombs Research Group Proud Patron of USGenNetJoin USGenNet

This site is hosted by USGenNet, a nonprofit web-hosting service solely supported by tax-deductible donations. If this website has provided you with useful information, please consider making a donation to USGenNet to help keep sites like this online.

NOTICE: The Combs-Coombs &c. Research Group is a nonprofit public benefit corporation and complies fully with USGenNet's Conditions of Use. This Combs &c. Research Report has been provided for the free use of those engaged in non-commercial genealogical research by the nonprofit Combs Research Group. Any and all commercial use is strictly prohibited. Researchers are encouraged to copy and distribute this work freely, but with the proviso that it may only be copied and circulated in its entirety -- including this notice, and all sources, bibliographies and credits; and excepting electronically in which case permission is freely granted to link to this site instead. Sincerely, The Combs &c Research Group, Email: Webmaster.

© 1996-2010 Combs-Coombs &c. Research Group

© 1997-2005, C. Hammett, V. Werder, D. Snyder;