This Web Site is Generously Hosted by
We Support Free Nonprofit Genealogy and History on the Internet
|The BURROUGHS/VASSALL/WEIRE Families|
of England, New England,
Barbados, and Old Rappa. Cos VA
The BURROUGHS, VASSALL and WARE/WARRE/WEIRE Families "intersect" with Combs & Associated Families, including the ARCHDALES of London, more than once over a period of many years (See Combs Notes Below). Note: This report is only just begun, and more will be added over time. Please email Additions/Corrections to the Combs Research List.
According to Edward D. Harris of New York City, contributor to an article in the "New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1897" Stephen and William BORROUGHS were brothers, both of Stepney, Co Middlesex, England, and Stephen the father of Judith BORROUGHS who m (1) 1586 Thomas SCOTT of Colchester, Co Essex, and London, England, and (2) 1591, as his 3d wife, John VASSALL who d 1625, and was the father of Samuel and William VASSALL, the latter having died in Barbados, and father of John VASSALL of Old Rappa and Essex Cos VA, and Anne VASSALL, w/o Nicholas WARE, also of Old Rappahannock (See Also John WEIRE below)
Mr. Harris submitted the following wills with his article:
Will of Stephen BOROWGHE, 1 July 1581. I bequeath my body to the land or sea, to which of them the goodness of the Almighty God shall appoint at his godly will and pleasure. To Joan my faithful wife my house in Gravesend called the sign of the Maidenhead during her natural life; and after her decease I bequeath the same unto Christopher BOROUGHE my eldest son and to the heirs of his body &c.; and if he die before he have any child of his own body lawfully begotten then I will that the said house be sold to the best advantage and the money thereof to be equally divided between my five daughters Judith, Susan, Mary, Anne, and Elizabeth, or the longest livers of them, by even portions. To Joan my wife the lease of my house over against Barking church, which house I hold in the right of John RABELO deceased, of which lease there is fourteen years to come at the feast of Christmas next ensuing the date hereof, which years to come &c. I will that the said Joane my wife shall enjoy to her use if she live so long; and if not then to be divided amongst my children. To my five daughters (as above) thirty pounds apiece, to be paid at the days of their marriages. I will that Joan my wife enjoy my house in Chatham call Goodsight during her widowhood or during the time my daughters be marriageable; and then I will that the same house be sold to the most advantage for the accomplishing of the legacies given to my said five children. All the rest of my goods (my apparel excepted) I give to Joan my wife whom I make my whole executrix. My apparel to be sold and the money coming thereof to be used towards the maintenance of my young children. My brother William BOROWGHE to be the overseer, and for his pains I bequeath unto him my whistle of gold. To my son Christopher BOROWGHE my gilt whistle for a remembrance. In witness of the truth hereof I have written this with mine hand at my house in Chatham call Goodsight the first day of July 1584. (Signed) S:BOROWGH.
Proved 18 August 1584 before Mr. Francis WHITE, surrogate to the venerable Mr. William LEWEN. Doctor of Laws &c. by the oath of the executrix named in the will. (Rochester Wills, Vol. xvi. (1578-84), Fo. 262.)
The Will of William BOROWGHE [brother of the above Stephen] Esq. 26 July 1598, proved 28 November 1598. "Whensoever it shall please God to call me out of this transitory life (if it be a Limehouse or near London and not far distant off or at the seas) I will that my body shall be buried in the parish church of Stebunheth, near unto the place where my first wife Judith lyeth, or in the Chancell. I covenanted before marriage between and Lady Jane WENTWORTH now my wife, to convey and assure to her, for term of her life, as for her jointure or in lieu of her dower, so much land as should be of the yearly value of fourscore pounds. For the performing thereof I leave conveyed to her (for life) my farm at Mile End in the parish of Stebunheth called Mewes, otherwise the White Horse, with the lands belonging, now in the occupation of John ROBINSON and Stephen HOWTON, and also my house in London near unto Rood church at the upper end of Tower Street, now in the tenure &c. of Martin ARCHDALE &c. Other bequest to wife. Whereas I have already given and entered into bond to perform, by the persuasion of my said wife before I married her, unto Jane WENTWORTH, niece and goddaughter to my said wife (wich Jane is now in my house) the sum of two hundred pounds in ready money at the day of her marriage, my will is that it shall be performed according to my said bonds. I give to my said wife my two coach horses and the coach &c. If my daughter Mary be not preferred in marriage during my life then I give and bequeath unto her, for her preferment &c., one thousand pounds; and if she do marry with the consent and liking of my executors and overseers, or the most part of them, then I give her one thousand more. To my son Walter BORROUGHE two hundred pounds. To my three sisters, Agnes, Margery and Jane, twenty pounds apiece, or if they die before me to their children. To my sister BORROUGHE, the widow of my brother Stephen deceased, twenty pounds and to her three daughters unmarried (if they marry with the consent of their mother and some of my executors), vizt. To Mary, Anne and Elizabeth, thirty pounds apiece in preferment of their marriage. And I give unto Judeth the wife of John VASSALL and to Susan the wife of William KINGE, being my said brother's daughters, twenty pounds apiece. To George LARYMAN ten pounds. Servants (not named) To the poor of Stepney twenty pounds, to be paid in such manner as shall be thought need by the overseers of my will and my nephew John BASSALL (sic) or two of them, whereof my said nephew to be one. To the poor of Northham in Devonshire twenty pounds, to be employed in such sort as my cousin Thomas LEIGHE and some others of best credit of the said parish shall think fit. I do constitute, ordain and make Sir Henry PALMER, knight, my cousin, Mr. Thomas LEIGHE and my nephew John BASSALL (sic) my executors. For overseers I appoint my well beloved wife Jane, Lady WENTWORTH and the Lady Elisabeth Countess Dowager of Rutland my especial good lady and honorable friend, and Mr. John BREWSTER, especially relying upon and entreating the said Ladies to take care for the good of my children, specially for the matching of my daughter in marriage. (In the Probate Act the name of the third executor is given as John VASSALL).(Lewyn, 89.)
Notes: The above Martin ARCHDALE was the uncle of Margaret ARCHDALE who m in London in 1587 John Combs, Merchant. John VASSALL'S mention of Henry PALMER as his "cousin" is of especial interest due to the London marriage of William PALMER to Barbara ARCHDALE, the latter the sister of Margaret ARCHDALE Combs. Moreover his reference to Thomas LEIGHE, also a cousin, is of interest due to the marriage of Elizabeth ARCHDALE (d/o Richard & Judith THORPE Archdale, and widow of John FLEETWOOD, to Robert LEIGH. (See her 1695 will under Binfield, Berkshire, England)
Also note that an Ann HAWTIN [a.k.a. HOWTIN] was a headright of Enoch Combs in 1664/5 when he came to MD, possibly by way of Lancaster Co VA (Colonial Combs of MD) and that an Ann ALVEY (sp. ARNOLD) is listed as spouse of John HAWTON in records of Nottingham, EN on 28 Aug 1602 (Jeff Alvey's Alvey Index) (See Archdale Families and Alvey-Archdale Families)
The BURROUGHS have not been found in other records with ARCHDALES; however, see also the will of Robert BECKINGHAM of Lancaster Co VA who in 1675 named his brother-in-law and sister, John & Elizabeth CUMES, and his brother-in-law and sister, John & Martha BURROUGHS.
According to Adventurers of Purse & Person, Virginia 1607-1624/5 by Virginia M. Meyer/John Frederick Dorman, 1987 (Abstracted):
John VASSALL was a subscriber for two shares of stock in the Virginia Company with an investment of £25.10.0 in 1618, and was the son of John VASSALL, a Huguenot of Normandy, sent into England by his father because of the troubles in France. In 1588 John, of county Essex, England, fitted out at his own expense and commanded two ships, the Samuel and the Little Toby, to help repel the Spanish Armada. The arms granted to him by queen Elizabeth I in consequence of this service were adopted by his family thereafter n place of those used by his French forebears. John VASSALL m (1), 25 Sept. 1569, Anne HEWES [HUGHES], who died without issue, (2), 4 Sept. 1580, Anne RUSSELL of Ratcliffe, Co Middlesex, buried 5 May 1593, and (3), 27 March 1594, Judith (BOROUGH [ABOROUGH]) Scott, daughter of Stephen BOROUGH and his wife Joan OVERYE of Stepney and of Chatham, County Kent, and widow of Thomas SCOTT of Colchester, County Essex. John VASSALL was an alderman of London and also a vestryman in Stepney Parish, Co Middlesex, where his three marriages took place. In a deposition made in 1610, John VASSALL described himself as of Eastwood, Essex, and aged 62. He died 13 Sept. 1625 of the plague and was buried at St. Dunstan, Stepney. His will, dated 29 April 1625, proved 16 Sept. 1625, named his wife Judith and his children. His wife, Judith VASSALL of Eastwood, Co Essex, died testate, her will dated 09 Nov. 1638, proved Jan. 1638/9.
Issue of John VASSALL by Anne RUSSELL included Judith, baptized 25 March 1582; d after 29 April 1625; married John FREEBORNE of Prittlewell, Essex (will dated 27 Jan. 1617/8, proved 17 Feb. 1617/8); Samuel; John, born 14 March 1589/90, died 30 Aug. 1591; and William. By his third wife, Judith BORROUGHS (Scott), John VASSALL left issue: Anna, born 10 Jan. 1595/6, buried 24 July 1640, married John JONES, rector of St. Nicholas Acons, London, who died 14 May 1636 at Highgate, Middlesex; Rachel, who m Peter ANDREWES of Ratcliffe, Middlesex (d 1650); Stephen, who matriculated Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1616, with a B.A. 1619/20, and an M.A. 1623, later the rector of Rayleigh, Essex, died 1643, married (1) Mary BROMLEY of Orsett, Essex (d 30 Jan. 1632/3), and (2) Mary GRUBB(E) of St. Alban's , Hertfordshire, b 2 Jan. 1614/5, who resided at Rayleigh when she made a deposition in 1646, aged 30; Thomas, born 7 April 1602, of St. Leonard, Eastcheap, London, when he married and of Whitechapel, London, in 1651, who m 27 June 1625 at St. Nicholas Acons, London, Anne DICKENSON; Mary, who married Edward WEST of Ratcliffe, a mariner; Elizabeth, born 1607, of Ratcliffe, Middlesex, m, 20 Jan. 1625/6 at St. Nicholas Acons, London, Henry CHURCH, born 1602, of Wapping, Middlesex.
William VASSALL'S son John VASSALL, born about 1625, served as a lieutenant of militia, 1652, and later as captain, at Scituate, Mass. John VASSALL sold his New England holdings by 1661 and moved to the West Indies, then or later. He engaged also in the settlement of Cape Fear, NC, was appointed Surveyor General of "Our County of Clarendon" by the Proprietors, 24 Nov. 1664, and in 1667 applied for relief to be sent to his followers and himself. By April 1670 he was in Virginia where as "Colonel" John VASSALL he was chosen as guardian, on 24 Feb. 1670/1, by his nephew John WARE. Col. John VASSALL married Anna LEWIS, daughter of John LEWIS, an English resident of Genoa. On 17 Dec. 1671 John VASSALL gave a power of attorney to his wife Anna, and Edward LEWIS, had apparently left Virginia by 17 March 1672/3 when his wife was acting in his behalf, and clearly was away by 9 April 1674. His plantation of 1170 acres in Old Rappahannock County, now Essex, which he bought from John WEIR, 7 Jan. 1667/8, was sold to Mrs. Honoria WEIR, 13 July 1671. He was a resident of Jamaica when he made his will, 10 Aug. 1684-6 July 1688, which mentioned his wife and children. His widow was naturalized there, 20 July 1685, and was buried 23 Feb. 1719/20 (will dated 20 Feb. 1719/20, proved 2 April 1720).
William VASSALL'S daughter, Anna VASSALL, born about 1629, married, before July 1655, Nicholas WARE of Old Rappahannock County, merchant, who was named executor of the will of her father and purchased Resolved WHITE'S portion of their father-in-law's estate, 17 March 1656/7, and Mary VASSALL'S portion, 11 May 1657. As a merchant of St. Michael's, Barbados, 3 Jan. 1661/2, Nicholas WARE gave bond to John VASSALL of Barbados to secure payment to VASSALL for "four good negroes." Their son, John, born 19 Oct. 1656, probably the John WARE who married Mrs. Elizabeth MORGAN and left will dated 24 July 1703, proved 29 March 1704, which mentioned wife Elizabeth, son John WARE, daughter Elizaeth WARE and sons-in-law [stepsons] Anthony and Robert MORGAN. (Adventurers of Purse & Person, Virginia 1607-1624/5 by Virginia M. Meyer/John Frederick Dorman, 1987)
Plymouth Colony: Its History and People 1620-1691, Eugene Aubrey Stratton, FASG, Ancestry, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, 1986, pp. 365-6provides some additional data abt additional descendants of William VASSALL (d ca1655, Barbados):
"William VASSALL, born ca. 1593, the son of John VASSALL, an alderman of London. William and his brother Samuel VASSALL were among the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay Company. William came to New England in 1630 as a Bay Colony Assistant, but returned to England after a short while… In 1635 he sailed aboard the Blessing, at age forty-two, with his wife Ann, age forty-two; and children Judith, sixteen; Frances, twelve; John ten; Ann, six; Margaret, two; and Mary, one; and settled at Roxbury in the Bay Colony. Shortly after, however, he moved to Scituate, the Plymouth Colony town closest to the Bay Colony (NEHGR 17:56; Deane, Scituate, p. 366; Pope). His involvement in the religious and political life of both colonies can be seen in the text. He left in 1646 for England in connection with the Child petition, and never returned to New England. He later moved to Barbadoes, where he was quite prosperous, and he died there in 1655. In his will, dated 13 July 1655, he named his son John, and his daughters Judith, Frances, Ann, Margaret, and Mary (NEHGR 17:57). VASSALL'S wife was Ann KING, and she was possibly related to the Thomas KING who also sailed on the Blessing and settled at Scituate (see NEHGR 109:95). Of their children, Judith married Mayflower passenger Resolved WHITE and their descendants can be found in MF 1, and Frances married James ADAMS, son of John ADAMS, q.v. Son John VASSALL was on the 1643 ATBA for Scituate, and in 1652 he was a lieutenant under Capt. James CUDWORTH, but later left the colony. Daughter Ann married Nicholas WARE, and daughter Margaret married Joshua HUBBARD (also seen as HOBART) (Torrey, p. 377)…Though William himself seems to have had no Virginia connection, his son John and his daughter Anne, wife of Nicholas WARE, were residents of Rappahannock Couty, Virginia, and his brother Samuel died on a voyage to Virginia. Additional information on William VASSALL is given in Roger D. Joslyn, "The English Origin of John Stockbridge and His First Wife Ann," (NGSQ 74:111)
Note: Elsewhere, Stratton states that John STOCKBRIDGE'S wife, Ann, was neè KENDALL, and that she was among those who, with the VASSALLS, were members of the Scituate Reformed Church (See Combs &c. Families of the Plymouth Colony, MA)
One John VASSALL appears as a headright in the land patents of Virginia on 20 Aug 1650 (Isle of Wight - VA Patent Book 2:240) by Robert BLAKE & Samuell ELDRIDGE, 560 A. described as "Lyeing upon the third swamp SW by W from Henry WHITE'S plantation." Other headrights included: John CLEMENTS, Edw. ALCHARD, Jo. STORREY, Wm. BATTS, Eliza. PHILLIPS, Richard WALTON, Mary MARTIN, Martha COLE, Tho. SYER, and Wm. BALDWINN. (Cavaliers & Pioneers, Vol. I, Nugent, p. 197) Question: Could SYER be SAYER? See Also John CLEMENTS of Talbot Co MD associated with the Combs-Roe Families.
John VASSALL was in Old Rappahannock Co VA on 04 Jul 1670 (Old Rappa. DB7:108-111) when he witnessed the indenture between "William UNDERWOOD Senyr. of the Parrish of Sittingborne in the County of Rappa.:" and Mr. John FOXHALL of Pope's Creek in the County of Westmoreland, Merchant," the former being the son of Col. Wm. UNDERWOOD whose widow, Elizabeth, had married by 1663 Archdale Combs I of Old Rappa. Co VA, and the latter having been the father-in-law of one Alexander GORGES whose relationship to Sir Ferdinando & Mary ARCHDALE Gorges remains unknown thus far (we're working on it).
Apparently the relationship between Nicholas WARE and John WEIRE of Old Rappa. Co VA also remains unknown. That there was one seems probable based on the close associations between the two families. John WEIRE appears in the records of Lancaster Co VA by 04 Sep 1650 when he witnessed a deed between Richard COLEMAN and Wm. VEALE & John VAUSE for land on the south side of the Rappa. River [later Old Rappa. Co, then Essex], adj. George MOSELY. (Lancaster Court Orders, 1652-1655, p. 206, Fleet's Col. Abstracts). Note: William VEALE d testate with will dated 1693 (apparently not extant) in which he deeded land in (Lancaster > Old Rappa. >) Essex Co VA to his grandson, Charles Combs (unidentified) See Will abstract.
A patent for 500 A land in Gloucester Co VA, dated 25 Mar 1655/6, for Peter FORD included as a headright one John WARE, the land described as "Cacamount on the northeast side of Mettopony [Mattapony] River beginning at a lower tree of Capt. Robert ABRALL, behind land of Mr. BARNHOUSE & Mr. William WYATT…"
John WEIRE had married Honoria (----) before 1659 when Honour [/] WEIRE gave her assent to sale of property in Old Rappa (Old Rappa Records, Part I 29 Sep 1656-1 Jul 1662, p. 48). (Exact date missing) (Sparacio); and was deceased by 1678 when his will was probated in Maryland:
7th May, 1671 - 28th Apr., 1678 (Maryland Wills, Liber 9, Folio 78) Will of Major John WEIRE of Rappahannock Co., Va. To wife Honoria, dower rights. To daughter-in-law Margaret, wife of John WATTS of Potomac R., and hrs., part of a tract of land, 1,108 A., bought of Henry RANDOLPH of Jamestown (½ of sd. tract having already been sold to Robert PAYNE). To dau. Eliza: and hrs., "The Island" at 21 yrs. of age. To son John and hrs., residue of lands in Va. and elsewhere. Exs.: Son-in-law Jno. WATTS, Wm. MOSELY, Capt. Jno. HULL. Test: Jno. BATES, Luke HUMBLETON, Jno. JEFFERY. (Maryland Calendar of Wills: Volume 1, p. 208)
It is not known if John WEIRE d in VA or MD (or elsewhere), but it appears probable that "The Island" was a Maryland tract. Robert PAYNE and Abraham Combs of Old Rappa. Co VA & St. Mary's Co MD (where he d in 1684) were godparents to the children of John & Joane (Combs?) Meador, with Abraham self-titled the "brother-in-law" of John MEADORS. (See also below). It also appears, based on his use of the phrase "daughter-in-law" (step-daughter) that John WEIRE was not Honoria's first marriage (not researched). Witness William MOSELEY was the uncle (somehow) of William UNDERWOOD, Sr., the above-referenced step-son of Archdale & Elizabeth UNKNOWN Underwood Underwood Combs of Old Rappa. Co VA (whose relationship to Abraham and Charles Combs remains unknown, albeit highly probable that there was one).
By 04 Sep 1684 John WEIRE'S widow, Honoria, had already married and buried George JONES of Old Rappahannock, and was acting as Administratix of JONES' estate. (Old Rappahannock OB, 1683-1686, p. 40 (55), Old Rappahannock Order Book Abstracts, 1683-85, Ruth & Sam Sparacio, Antient Press, McLean, VA, 1990) George JONES had been a co-administrator in 1679 with Amory BUTLER of the estate of Col. John CATLETT, h/o of Elizabeth UNDERWOOD, sister of Col. Wm. UNDERWOOD whose widow, Elizabeth, had m Archdale Combs.
Honoria (-----) Unknown Ware Jones had died by 04 Jan 1685/6 when her will, dated 21st Oct 1685 was recorded in the Old Rappahannock Co VA Court:
"Will of Honoria JONES, widow & Relict of Mr. George JONES, being sick & weak of body, but … to my Daughter Margaret BLAGG, that seat… of land wch I purc. of Colnll. John VASSALL lying & being on South Side of Rappa. River contaying Eleven hundred seventy & five acres the sd land to be at her absolute sole disposall for ever… to my Daughter Elizabeth GARDNER my Wedding Ring wch joyned me and my Husband Majr. John WEIRE in Matrimonie… to my Son In Law Mr. Abraham BLAGG 20 Shillings to buy him a mourning Ring… to my son Richard GARDNER, a knife a ring of the aforesd value… to my Grandchild Richard WATTS, one Silver .. Grandson, Edward BLAGG, same aforesaid… to my Grandson Edward BLAGG same aforesaid… Grandson Luke GARDNER the same … Grandson Jno GARDNER the same… Daughter Margrett BLAGG, Wife of Mr. Abraham BLAGG to be my sole Executrix.. S/Honoria JONES. Wits: James HARRISON, Andw. [AO] ONEBY, Michael BASSEY, Prvd. 21 Dec 1685 by BASSEY, Wits. Henry AWBREY, Geo. TAYLER. Rec. 4 Jan 1685/6. (Old Rappa. WB2:84-5, Old Rappahannock VA Wills, Ruth & Sam Sparacio, McLean, VA)
By John WARE, Honoria had issue, Elizabeth who m bef 1680, Richard GARDNER (d 1687); however, in his will, he refers to Margaret as his "daughter-in-law (step-daughter) which may mean that he was not Honoria's first husband. Her daughter, Margaret, m (1) John WATTS; (2) Abraham BLAGG (d 1697/8, Westmoreland Co VA). Abraham BLAGG appears in the records of St. Mary's Co MD with Abraham Combs, his (Westmoreland?) land appears in the records of King George Co VA adjacent to the Combs Land. He is found in the records of Richmond Co VA (from Old Rappa. Co) with John Combs, s/o Archdale Combs I.
4 Jun 1694-31 Mar 1697/8 (Westmoreland WB2) Will of Abraham BLAGG [I], Est. to wife Margaret. (Westmoreland Wills, Fothergill)
6 Oct 1716-28 Nov 1716 (Westmoreland WB6) Will of Abraham BLAGG [II]. Mother Margaret BLAGG exx; son Abraham; my bro. Richard WATT'S children; personal est. to son and wife; if mother dies, William REED exr. (Westmoreland Wills, Fothergill)
18 May 1724 - 27 Jul 1726 (Westmoreland WB8) Will of Margaret BLAGG. All my est. to my grandson Abraham BLAGG [III] when 18 years of age; James HORE his uncle to advise him. (Westmoreland Wills, Fothergill)
Notes: How was James HORE uncle to Abraham BLAGG III? Was he kin to the much later Walter HORE, 2nd husband of Virginia Combs, d/o William Rousseau Combs and Sarah WICKLIFFE of Stafford Co VA?
Another question arises in respect to the WARE/WEIRE Families and that is whether they were descended from the WARRE Family of Hestercombe, Co Somerset, EN where in 1566, one Richard WARRE who may have been the following, gave a deposition in respect to the Combs of that county:
From Burke's Family Records by Ashworth P. Burke, 1897, p 616, the lineage of the WARE Family:
Mathew WARRE, Serjeant-at-Law, was son of Robert LAWARRE, by his wife, the dau. and heir of Kentesbeere. He m. Alice, dau. of William DENBAULD, and left a son and heir, John WARRE, who m. the dau. and heir of John MERIET, of Hestercombe, and by her had a son and heir, Richard WARRE, of Hestercombe, m. Joan, dau. and heir of John ATWOODE, and by her had a son, Richard WARRE, m Joan, dau. and heir of John COMBE, of Dalwood, Dorset, and by her had issue: John WARRE who m. Joan, dau. of Walter STAPLETON, of Brushwood, and had a son, Robert WARRE, living 22 Henry VI [ca1444], who m. Christian, sister of Richard HANGFORD, and had a son, Richard HANGFORD, and had a son, Richard, was m. Joan, dau. of Lord STURTON, and d.s.p. 22 Edward IV [ca1483]. (Note: All of the above marriages before 1640)
To be continued…
Join Combs &c. in Support of USGenNet
— an IRS-approved nonprofit web-hosting service —
This site is hosted by USGenNet, a nonprofit web-hosting service solely supported by tax-deductible donations. If this website has provided you with useful information, please consider making a donation to USGenNet to help keep sites like this online.
NOTICE: The Combs-Coombs &c. Research Group is a nonprofit public benefit corporation and complies fully with USGenNet's Conditions of Use. This Combs &c. Research Report has been provided for the free use of those engaged in non-commercial genealogical research by the nonprofit Combs Research Group. Any and all commercial use is strictly prohibited. Researchers are encouraged to copy and distribute this work freely, but with the proviso that it may only be copied and circulated in its entirety -- including this notice, and all sources, bibliographies and credits; and excepting electronically in which case permission is freely granted to link to this site instead. Sincerely, The Combs &c Research Group, Email: Webmaster.
© 1996-2010 Combs-Coombs &c. Research Group